arhivar_rus (arhivar_rus) wrote,
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Место чистоты в храме Силы. "Часовня Нового Года". Дендера.



Роспись по рельефу на потолке "часовни":



- богиня Нут рождает солнце, сияющее над головой Хатхор.

***

Еще рождение солнца в гипостильном зале храма Хатхор, более четко (отреставрировано):

[EGYPT 29528]'Birth of the sun in Hathor Temple at Dendera.' The rising sun is born from the lap of sky goddess Nut on the astronomical ceiling in the outer hypostyle hall of the Hathor Temple at Dendera. The ceiling consists of seven separate strips but here we are looking at a detail of the EASTERNMOST STRIP. The entire strip is enveloped by the outstretched body of the sky goddess Nut and her feet are visible in the right lower corner of this picture. The wave pattern on Nut's dress symbolizes the cosmic river on which the sun traveled during the night. The rays of the rising sun touch the head of the goddess Hathor which is located on top of a simplified image of a temple. The scene portrays the first day of the Egyptian New Year on which a statue of Hathor, brought from a crypt in the temple and placed on its roof, was rejuvenated by the first rays of the New Year sun. A similar scene can be found on the ceiling of the Wabet (see picture 29610). To the right of the sun rays we see Cancer, one of the six zodiac  signs that are represented in this ceiling strip. These signs are of Babylonic-Greek origin and are not found in Egypt before it was conquered by Alexander the Great in 332 BC.To the left of the sun we see (upside down) a small boat carrying a lotus flower from which emerges a snake. The snake is a symbol for the rising sun on the first day of the New Year, the lotus flower being the first object that appeared on the primordial sea on the first day of the world creation. It is similar to the famous image of the sun-snake in a cosmos-bulb which is found in the southern crypt of the temple (see pictures 29604-607).For an overview of this ceiling strip see picture 29526.This part of the Dendera Temple was built during the Roman period (first century AD). Photo Mick Palarczyk.

[EGYPT 29527]'Birth of the sun in Hathor Temple at Dendera.' The rising sun is born from the lap of sky goddess Nut on the astronomical ceiling in the outer hypostyle hall of the Hathor Temple at Dendera. The ceiling consists of seven separate strips but here we are looking at a detail of the EASTERNMOST STRIP. The entire strip is enveloped by the outstretched body of the sky goddess Nut and her feet are visible in the left upper corner of this picture. The wave pattern on Nut's dress symbolizes the cosmic river on which the sun traveled during the night. The rays of the rising sun touch the head of the goddess Hathor which is located on top of a simplified image of a temple (seen upside down here). The scene portrays the first day of the Egyptian New Year on which a statue of Hathor, brought from a crypt in the temple and placed on its roof, was rejuvenated by the first rays of the New Year sun. To the left of the sun rays we see Cancer, one of the six zodiac  signs that are represented in this ceiling strip. These signs are of Babylonic-Greek origin and are not found in Egypt before it was conquered by Alexander the Great in 332 BCOn the right we see the end of the two registers which make up the rest of this strip. The upper register starts with a boat carrying the standing goddesses Anukis and Satis, who represent a constellation south of the Ecliptic (the astronomical location is known from the famous round zodiac of Dendera in the Louvre). Anukis, as personification of the Nile, is pouring water from two vessels. Satis, another water goddess, is wearing the crown of upper Egypt. This watery constellation is closely associated with the next heavenly body: Sothis (the star Sirius) depicted as a cow on a boat. The rise of Sirius on the eastern horizon, after a few weeks of invisibility, signaled the beginning of the summer Nile flood for the Egyptians and the beginning of the New Year.Next comes a constellation or star which is called 'Horus-who-is-on-his-pillar' and which is south of the Ecliptic (the astronomical location is known from the famous round zodiac of Dendera in the Louvre.)The lower register starts with a small boat carrying a lotus flower from which emerges a snake. The snake is a symbol for the rising sun on the first day of the New Year, the lotus flower being the first object that appeared on the primordial sea on the first day of the world creation. It is similar to the famous image of the sun-snake in a cosmos-bulb which is found in the southern crypt of the temple (see pictures 29604-607). Next follows a boat with a seated Isis and Hathor and a standing Harsomptus, the three most important deities of the temple. The falcon-headed god on a boat to the right of that is a decanal star (nr. 35 in the Tanis decan family of Neugebauer and Parker).For an overview of this ceiling strip see picture 29526.This part of the Dendera Temple was built during the Roman period (first century AD). Photo Mick Palarczyk.

Как мы видим, неведомые мстители добрались к потолку и на пятнадцатиметровой высоте срубили богине нос.
Впрочем, это сделано повсюду:


[EGYPT 29523]'Outer hypostyle hall of Hathor Temple at Dendera.' The columns in the outer hypostyle hall (or pronaos) of the Hathor Temple at Dendera are crowned by four-sided capitals carved with the face of the cow-eared goddess. The faces symbolize the four cardinal points of the universe and stress the universal character of the sky goddess Hathor, who was also called "Lady with the four Faces".Here we are looking towards the eastern end of the hall.The ceiling has recently been cleaned of soot and dust and is decorated with a complex set of astronomical figures, constellations, planets and a zodiac. One strip has been left uncleaned however and this is visible as a black zone at the upper edge of the picture.This part of the Dendera Temple was built during the Roman period (first century AD). Photo Mick Palarczyk.

На всех изображениях и рельефах Хатхор отсутствует нос, или даже часть лица.

[EGYPT 29521]'Outer hypostyle hall of Hathor Temple at Dendera.' The columns in the outer hypostyle hall (or pronaos) of the Hathor Temple at Dendera are crowned by four-sided capitals carved with the face of the cow-eared goddess. The faces symbolize the four cardinal points of the universe and stress the universal character of the sky goddess Hathor, who was also called "Lady with the four Faces".Here we are looking towards the eastern end of the hall.The ceiling has recently been cleaned of soot and dust and is decorated with a complex set of astronomical figures, constellations, planets and a zodiac.This part of the Dendera Temple was built during the Roman period (first century AD). Photo Paul Smit.

И еще мы видим - на колоннах аккуратно срублены некоторые надписи по кругу, повсюду - люди старались, наверное залезали для этого на лестницы.

[EGYPT 29519]'Column in Hathor Temple at Dendera.' The shafts of the columns in the outer hypostyle hall (or pronaos) of the Hathor Temple at Dendera are covered with intricate decorations. One of the more conspicuous figures is Heh, the god of eternity, depicted in a crouching position. He is holding a (leafless) palm stem in each hand, which symbolized long life to the Egyptians, the years being represented by the notches on the stem. The winged lion-headed serpents are personifications of the cobra goddess Wadjet.Sadly, a row of Hathor heads has been defaced.This part of the Dendera Temple was built during the Roman period (first century AD). Photo Mick Palarczyk.

[EGYPT 29524]'Outer hypostyle hall of Hathor Temple at Dendera.' The columns in the outer hypostyle hall (or pronaos) of the Hathor Temple at Dendera are crowned by four-sided capitals carved with the face of the cow-eared goddess. The faces symbolize the four cardinal points of the universe and stress the universal character of the sky goddess Hathor, who was also called "Lady with the four Faces"The ceiling has recently been cleaned of soot and dust and is decorated with a complex set of astronomical figures, constellations, planets and a zodiac.This part of the Dendera Temple was built during the Roman period (first century AD). Photo Mick Palarczyk.

Бог Южного Ветра (парус и анх  в руках) на потолке Храма Хартхор:

[EGYPT 29550]'Good wind from the South at Dendera.' Representing the south wind, a ram-headed creature with double outstretched wings, holding a little sail and the 'ankh' sign of life, can be found on the astronomical ceiling in the outer hypostyle hall of the Hathor Temple at Dendera.The ceiling consists of seven separate strips but here we are looking at the southern end of the upper register of the SECOND STRIP EAST from centre.A caption near the head of the wind figure proclaims him to be "the good wind from the south". Wind creatures such as these only appear in Egyptian monuments of the Greek-Roman period.The lion-headed goddess and the snake are decans.Decans were essentially 36 stars or star groups near the ecliptic  whose rise or transit could be used to tell the time during the night. Eventually they were also used by astronomers as place-markers in the sky to divide up the Ecliptic in equal portions. Decans first appear during the Middle Kingdom on the inside of coffin lids, providing the deceased with his own private start clock. Unfortunately, during the subsequent centuries many different lists of decanal stars were developed and very few of these stars can be identified on a modern star map.The decans in this register were listed by Neugebauer and Parker as belonging to the Seti I B decan family. A peculiarity of these decans is that each is associated with a certain mineral, metal or type of wood. It is mentioned in a little caption near each figure. Thus the seated lion-headed goddess (decan no. 22) is associated with carnelian and gold, while the erect white serpent (no. 21) is coupled with dark flint and gold.For an overview of this ceiling strip see picture 29539.This part of the Dendera Temple was built during theRoman period (first century AD). Photo Paul Smit.

Бог Западного Ветра на потолке Храма Хартхор:

[EGYPT 29574]'West wind on astronomical ceiling at Dendera.' Holding a little sail in his hand, a double winged creature with two snake heads personifies the west wind on the astronomical ceiling in the outer hypostyle hall of the Hathor Temple at Dendera. Wind figures such as these only appear in Egyptian monuments of the Greek-Roman period.The astronomical ceiling consists of seven separate strips but here we are looking at a detail of the upper register of the SECOND STRIP WEST from centre.The enthroned god wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt is Atum, personification of the evening sun.An overview of the southern end of this ceiling strip can be found in picture 29572.For an overview of the entire astronomical ceiling see picture 29525.This part of the Dendera Temple was built during the Roman period (first century AD). Photo Paul Smit.


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